12/11/2019 11:58:46 AM
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Historical survey iran

IRAN country takes its name from the Aryans an indo European Nomadic people originally from central Asia , who in several migrations entered the high Plateau in the second millennium B.C .it was the Greeks who applied the name of Persia to the land.

Taking it from Persis or Fars , the sought western province which was the homeland of Achamenians.

The history of Iran however properly begins with the rise of the Medes in the western and northern Persians , both of India , European stock were united when the doughter of Median king Astyages married Combyses 1 , son of Syrus 1 from Persian tribe.

Cyrus 2 ( the great ) the offespering of this marriages , defeated his grandfather , Astyages , in battle 550 B.C .

So Achamenians daynasty established his new empire with capitals in at least Passargade (Fars ) Babylon and Ecbatana ( Hamadan of today ) .

Syrus whose conquests ranges from central Asia to the Mediterranean , treated his vanguished enemies with the generosity and tolerance remarkable for his time.it was he who liberated the Jewish exiles in Babylon and restored Jerusalem to them. His successors particularly Darius the great and his son Xerexes (who defeated the Spartans at thermopile and incurred the lasting hatred of the Greeks by burning the Acropolis in Athens continued the expansion of the empire which included many of the Greek island , it reached north to Danube , Ethipia and north and east to Afghanistan and India .it was Alexader of Macedon who defeated the last of the Achamenians , Darius 3 in 331-30 B.C and burnt Persepolis.some day in revenge for the destruction of the Acrpolis.after Alexander Seleucids and then Parthians were ruled the country And from the 3 th century Sassanid dynasty was in the power up to time that Iran was occupied by Arab people in A.D 7 th century. From 7th many local daynasties still ruled various small kingdms in Iran and among the most important of those were the Buyids and GHaznavid that both of were defeated by the Saljuqs. Saljuq established an impire which extended from China to Syria and from the river Oxus to Arabia up to time that was defeated by CHengiz Khans grandson Hulagu in 1251-1256. In 14 century Tamerlane another conqueror established Timrid daynasty that was defeated by Qoyounlu tribes followed by that of the Ottoman turks.in 1501 Safavid king Shah Esmail crowned and Shah Abbas the great continued the Safavid kingdom .after Safavid for a short time Afghan and Nader Qoli ( nader shah afshar ) ruled the country .

finally in 19 century Qajar was in the power up to time that the commander – in – chif general Reza KHan former commander of the famous Persian Cossak brigade was crowned in Tehran and taking the ancient name of Pahlavi for his new daynasty in 1925 A.D .

in 1941 the Shah abdicated in favour of his eldest son Mohammad reza Pahlavi from 1941 he began to rule.the century until the victory of the Islamic revolution in 1979 A.D  

Iran covers 1648000 km in south western asia its strategic position , its vast resources , including petro leum , natural gas and minerals , its population amounting to 80 milions , and its unique cultural life make it a country of high importance . both history and geography of iran make it a land of highly popular with visitors . the former gives it numerous spectacular monuments , and the latter make it enjoy the climate full of variety . modern persian is the official language of iran , jafari , shiite or Islam has been the official religion of iran since 16th century .

Customs of Iran  (  Social behavior and habits )

The Iranian new year is called NOW ROUZ .

It is celebrated 21th march . the holidays last,s 13 days , and through these days people used to put on new clothes , visiting families and friends , and giving gifts and eating special food . for the new year in every home you can see a table cloth on the table , and seven foods beginning with the letter,s are taken , as symbolic objects are placed on it , including : Garlic ( siir ) , special sweet (Samanu ) , Somaq , viniger ( Serkeh ) , and a dried fruit ( Senjed ) , and Coin (Sekeh ) , Green ( Sabzeh ) .

Of course the holy books Koran and mirror and candle and some fruit specially apple will be there on the table . then at the final day of the holiday in 13th day all families go on picnic .

A handshake is the customary greeting in Iran . a slight bow or nod while shaking hands shows respect . after islamic revolution women are not allowed to shake hands with men in public . hospitality is a very common and cherished tradition for iranian . our philasophy claims that guest is friend or gift of good , so respecting the guest is a way of respecting Allah .


The diet varies throught the country , but in general muslims do not eat pork , or drink alcohol . in iran alcohol consumption is forbidden . rice and wheat bread are the staples food , and often is served with meat or stew . yogurt is very common and it is served with every meal . muslims do not eat or drink anything from dawn to dark in Ramazan . the fast is broken in the evening and families eat together.

Marriage and family

Children usually live with their parents until they marry. Women marry between the age of 16 and 25 , men marry somewhat later because of military service and job. it is legal for a man to have up to 4 wifes if he can provide for each equally , most men , however choose to have one wife . most marriages are arranged by families , in past this meant that many young females married their cousins or other family . more liberal attitudes have emerged in some areas regarding education , work , and freedom in selecting marriage partners .